Reports Mar 7, Publications Jan 30, An early look at the electorate. Blog Posts Jul 8, Hispanic population reached new high in , but growth has slowed.
Blog Posts Jul 2, Hispanics with darker skin are more likely to experience discrimination than those with lighter skin. Interactives Jun 3, Facts on U. Immigrants, Statistical Portraits Sep 18, Latinos: Interactive Charts and Detailed Tables. Reports Jun 29, Interactives Oct 16, Want to understand U. Interactives Apr 10, He sent her back to Mexico City, where he provided for her and their child. In , Santa Anna was wounded in the arm by a Chichimec arrow while on a campaign against northern Indian tribes.
In the aftermath of the rebellion the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions, and historians have speculated that Santa Anna modeled his policy and conduct in the Texas Revolution on his experience under Arredondo. During the next few years, in which the war for independence reached a stalemate, Santa Anna erected villages for displaced citizens near Veracruz. He also pursued gambling, a vice that would follow him all through his life.
He rose to prominence by quickly driving the Spanish forces out of the vital port city of Veracruz in On his own initiative, Santa Anna prepared to invade Cuba , which remained under Spanish rule, but he possessed neither the funds nor sufficient support for such an adventure. In , Spain made its final attempt to retake Mexico in Tampico with an invading force of 2, soldiers. Santa Anna marched against the Barradas Expedition with a much smaller force and defeated the Spaniards, many of whom were suffering from yellow fever. Santa Anna was declared a hero , which he relished, and from then on, he styled himself "The Victor of Tampico" and "The Savior of the Motherland.
Santa Anna declared himself retired, "unless my country needs me. Santa Anna was elected president in This was applauded by some conservatives, but met with considerable disapproval from other sectors. Of these states, only the Texas portion of the state of Coahuila and Texas voted to formally separate from the Mexican confederation. The other states expressed a desire to return to the constitution, not to form their own countries.
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The Zacatecan militia , the largest and best supplied of the Mexican states, led by Francisco Garcia, was well armed with. After two hours of combat, on May 12, , the "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3, prisoners. Santa Anna allowed his army to ransack the city for forty-eight hours. He planned to put down the rebellion first in Zacatecas before moving on to Coahuila y Tejas. By this time, Santa Anna had relinquished the presidency four times. When the drums of war beat, he appointed a successor, and went off into battle.
However, as he marched north into Texas, it was acknowledged that Santa Anna was indeed the ruler of Mexico. Like other states discontented with the central Mexican authority, the Texas department of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas went into rebellion in late , and declared itself independent on March 2, Santa Anna marched north to bring Texas back under Mexican control.
Did you know that Santa Anna had about 4,000 soldiers VS the 200 defenders at the Alamo?
Santa Anna's forces killed Texan defenders at the Battle of the Alamo February March 6, and executed Texan prisoners at the Goliad massacre March 27, Acting Texas president David G. Burnet and Santa Anna signed the Treaties of Velasco "in his official character as chief of the Mexican nation, he acknowledged the full, entire, and perfect Independence of the Republic of Texas. Before Santa Anna could leave Texas, angry volunteer soldiers from the United States threatened to remove him from his boat and kill him as it was leaving the port of Velasco.
Back in Mexico City, a new government declared that Santa Anna was no longer president and the treaty was thus null and void.
Say to Mr. Poinsett that it is very true that I threw up my cap for liberty with great ardor, and perfect sincerity, but very soon found the folly of it. A hundred years to come my people will not be fit for liberty. They do not know what it is, unenlightened as they are, and under the influence of a Catholic clergy, a despotism is the proper government for them, but there is no reason why it should not be a wise and virtuous one. In , it replaced the constitution with the new constitutional document known as the " Siete Leyes " "The Seven Laws".
His regime became a dictatorship backed by the military. Only the Texans defeated Santa Anna and retained their independence. Their fierce resistance was possibly fueled by reprisals Santa Anna committed against his defeated enemies. But, after two hours of combat on 12 May , Santa Anna's "Army of Operations" defeated the Zacatecan militia and took almost 3, prisoners. Santa Anna allowed his army to loot Zacatecas for forty-eight hours. After defeating Zacatecas, he planned to move on to Coahuila y Tejas to quell the rebellion there, which was being supported by settlers from the United States aka Texians.
Santa Anna's reasoning for the repeal was that American settlers in Texas were not paying taxes or tariffs, claiming they were not recipients of any services provided by the Mexican Government. As a result, new settlers were not allowed there. The new policy was a response to the U.
Santa Anna's treatment of the people of Texas also led to the revolution. In , Santa Anna abolished the state legislature and gave himself absolute power, and as a result, the people in Texas were considered by Santa Anna to be a part of an unethical governmental system. The first altercation occurred in September , when General Cos of the Mexican Army ordered men to confiscate a cannon from Gonzales. The people of Texas resisted, gaining control of the Alamo. Like other states discontented with the central Mexican authorities, the Texas Department of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas rebelled in late and declared itself independent on 2 March The northeastern part of the state had been settled by numerous Anglo-American immigrants.
Stephen Austin and his party had been welcomed by earlier Mexican governments. Santa Anna marched north to bring Texas back under Mexican control by a show of brute merciless force. His expedition posed challenges of manpower, logistics, supply, and strategy far beyond what he was prepared for, and it ended in disaster. To fund, organize, and equip his army he relied, as he often did, on forcing wealthy men to provide loans.
He recruited hastily, sweeping up many derelicts and ex-convicts, as well as Indians who could not understand Spanish commands. His army expected tropical weather and suffered from the cold as well as shortages of traditional foods.
Stretching a supply line far longer than ever before, he lacked horses, mules, cattle, and wagons, and thus had too little food and feed. The medical facilities were minimal. Morale sank as soldiers realized there were not enough chaplains to properly bury their bodies. Regional Indians attacked military stragglers; water sources were polluted and many men were sick. Because of his weak staff system, Santa Anna was oblivious to the challenges, and was totally confident that a show of force and a few massacres as at the Alamo and Goliad would have the rebels begging for mercy.
These executions were conducted in a manner similar to the executions he witnessed of Mexican rebels in the s as a young soldier. In , Santa Anna explained in a letter that killing the Alamo insurgents was his only option. The letter stressed that Alamo garrison commander William B.
Travis was to blame for the degree of violence at the Alamo. Santa Anna believed that Travis was overly rude and disrespectful towards him, and had that not happened, he would have allowed Sam Houston to establish a dominant presence there. In his letter, he stated that the disrespect of Travis led to the demise of all of his followers, which he claimed only took a couple of hours.
During the siege of the Alamo, the Texas Navy had more time to plunder ports along the Gulf of Mexico and the Texian Army gained more weapons and ammunition. They found the general dressed in a dragoon private's uniform and hiding in a marsh. On 14 May , a treaty was made between Santa Anna and Texas. It committed Santa Anna to cease, trying to bring to an end to the uprising of traitors against Mexico. Santa Anna also agreed that his troops would leave Texas. Both armies were also prohibited from contact with each other. Lastly, the treaty demanded that all Texan prisoners under Santa Anna be released.
The treaty was a major turning point in Santa Anna's career, as it meant the end of Mexican reign in Texas. Acting Texas president David G. During this weeks-long journey, Santa Anna passed through Washington D. Meanwhile, in Mexico City a new government declared that Santa Anna was no longer president and that the treaty he had made with Texas was null and void. The Mexican Congress also rejected the treaty. Say to General Santa Anna that when I remember how ardent an advocate he was of liberty ten years ago, I have no sympathy for him now, that he has gotten what he deserves.
Say to Mr. Poinsett that it is very true that I threw up my cap for liberty with great ardor, and perfect sincerity, but very soon found the folly of it. A hundred years to come my people will not be fit for liberty. They do not know what it is, unenlightened as they are, and under the influence of a Catholic clergy, a despotism is a proper government for them, but there is no reason why it should not be a wise and virtuous one.
After some time in exile in the U.
In , Santa Anna also wrote a manifesto in which he reflected on his Texas experiences as well as his surrender. His great impact on Mexico was that by the age of thirty-five, he had built such a strong reputation as a military leader that he obtained high ranking. He acknowledged that by , he considered Texas to be the biggest threat to Mexico, and he acted upon those threats.
In , Santa Anna had a chance for redemption from the loss of Texas. After Mexico rejected French demands for financial compensation for losses suffered by French citizens, France sent forces that landed in Veracruz in the Pastry War.
The Mexican government gave Santa Anna control of the army and ordered him to defend the nation by any means necessary. He engaged the French at Veracruz. During the Mexican retreat after a failed assault, Santa Anna was hit in the left leg and hand by cannon fire. His shattered ankle required amputation of much of his leg, which he ordered buried with full military honors.
Despite Mexico's final capitulation to French demands, Santa Anna used his war service to re-enter Mexican politics.