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Both courses are MBAs so their core content is broadly similar, but the main difference between the two is where the teaching takes place. Likewise, some executive MBA providers are blending in online options to offer students greater flexibility. In some cases, whole classes, such as accountancy and mathematics, are available online for students to complete at their own pace. Indeed, one of the main differences between the courses is the proportion of online teaching. Just 40 per cent of the accelerated course is delivered digitally, enabling students to work at their own pace, whereas the EMBA has no online elements.

The first cohort for the accelerated MBA will start in January, and the school says it has received hundreds of applications.

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She suggests this is because the courses appeal to students at different stages in their careers. This runs alongside an established EMBA programme, which makes use of online teaching for core and elective courses if the students opt to study that way. The average age of both is 37 with an average professional experience of at least 10 years.

Wailes thinks the two courses therefore complement one another, even strengthening the case for coming to AGSM as students sometimes start in one programme before transitioning to another. Having both programmes also encourages a wider range of people to obtain a business education because there is greater choice. The biggest change occurring on EMBA courses, according to Wailes, is the growth in enrolment of entrepreneurs and small business owners, rather than executives in large established companies.

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Andrew Crisp, founder of London-based education research company CarringtonCrisp, sees no reason why online MBAs would subsume their executive counterparts at the moment. If an EMBA includes study at multiple locations, this may be even more attractive, he adds, as a student can spend those three- or four-week blocks in different parts of the world and gain added value from face-to-face study time. While adverse selection is generally thought of as a single concept, a deeper look at its role in health insurance markets reveals that there are in fact two problems, corresponding to two margins along which selection can occur.

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Adverse selection both leads healthier people to opt out of health insurance altogether — an extensive margin response — and to select into less generous plans within the market — an intensive margin response. As public insurance is increasingly provided through regulated competitive markets, policymakers have designed a number of policies to separately address these two selection margins Gruber , Geruso and Layton For instance, policies such as penalties for uninsurance and subsidies primarily target the extensive margin — the choice of whether or not to purchase health insurance.

Such policies have been effective at inducing healthy individuals to take up insurance, thereby lowering costs in some regulated insurance markets Hackman et al.

Other policies, such as risk adjustment and reinsurance, are designed to affect selection on the intensive margin — the choice of which insurance plan within a given market to purchase. Such measures have been effective at lowering costs of more generous plans in settings such as Medicare Advantage Newhouse et al.

In a recent paper, we argue that these two selection margins are in fact connected via their impact on market prices and competition Geruso et al. Policy responses to one margin need to consider interactions with and unintended consequences for selection along the other margin. We use this model to show that policies designed to address selection on one margin can have unintended consequences on the other. In some cases, the unintended consequences are so severe that they can reverse the gains from fixing selection problems on the other margin.

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Uninsurance penalties, subsidies, and other policies designed to address selection on the extensive margin induce healthy, low cost individuals to enter insurance markets. This influx of healthy individuals is intended to lower insurer costs and premiums in that market. However, in markets where multiple plans are available, inducing the entry of healthy people can have unintended effects. To see this, note that the group of marginal enrollees induced to take up insurance are likely to 1 have lower health care costs and 2 choose the cheapest plans in the market the skimpier offerings.

This influx of low-cost individuals allows skimpy plans to further lower their premiums. This leads to a wider price gap between the generous and the skimpy plans, resulting in some marginal individuals switching away from more generous coverage. Thus, while extensive margin policies induce more people to enter the market, they will also tend to induce some people who would otherwise have chosen a generous plan to purchase less generous coverage.

This introduces a trade-off between the uninsurance rate and the level of generosity of coverage purchased by consumers in the market. Intensive margin policies designed to increase enrolment in more generous plans may also have unintended consequences if individuals can choose to go without insurance altogether. For example, a common intensive margin policy is risk adjustment, or mandated financial transfers from plans enrolling relatively healthy consumers to plans enrolling relatively sick consumers.

Under risk adjustment, skimpy plans that attract relatively low-cost individuals will pay transfers to more generous plans with high-cost enrollees.


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These transfer payments to the more generous plans result in higher premiums for the skimpy plans and lower premiums for the generous plans, compressing the gap between the premiums of these two options. The smaller premium gap causes more individuals to enrol in more generous coverage, the intended effect of the policy. However, the smaller premium gap is often paired with a higher overall premium for the skimpy option. Because the skimpy plan must pay transfers to the more generous plan, the skimpy plan will have increased premiums.

This causes some individuals who would have chosen the skimpy plan to opt out of the market altogether and go uninsured. Again, there is a trade-off between the level of generosity of coverage purchased by consumers in the market and the level of uninsurance in the market.

Other policies have similar effects. On the intensive margin, regulators may also consider implementing minimum requirements for the generosity of health insurance plans. Due to the two-way coupling between the models, the influences of wind waves and the atmosphere on each other can be determined.

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This two-way coupling between these models is enabled through the introduction of wave-induced drag into CCLM and updated winds into WAM. As a result of wave-induced drag, different atmospheric parameters are either directly or indirectly influenced by the wave conditions. The largest differences between the coupled and reference model simulation are found during storm events as well as in areas of steep gradients in the mean sea level pressure, wind speed or temperature.

In the two-way coupled simulation, the position and strength of these gradients vary, compared to the reference simulation, leading to differences that spread throughout the entire planetary boundary layer and outside the coupled model area, thereby influencing the atmosphere over land and ocean, although not coupled to the wave model.

Ultimately, the results of both model simulations are assessed against in situ and satellite measurements, with a better general performance of the two-way coupled simulation with respect to the observations.


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